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Monthly Issue of ARTtalk Local Beacon, N.Y.
ARTtalk Each month you’ll find
informative articles that deal with a variety of subjects such as artists
and art history, current events and art world news, schools, competitions
and workshops, and a Kids?Korner. Subjects vary each month. art supplies,
airbrushing, drawing, painting, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics, matting
and framing, arts and crafts, and more. These explain various
techniques—how to work and paint with artist's watercolor on paper, oils
or acrylics on artist canvas; how to use pastels, pencils or pen and
ink; how to work with different surfaces grounds; how to paint with the
airbrush and compatible materials; the use of projectors and light boxes
in your work and more. You’ll also find artists information on magazines,
art books. (Established 1990)
ARTtalk Cybercopy - posted JAN. 1, 2015
(ARTtalk’s latest cybercopy is posted on
the 1st of every month.)
Free Day 2015
Saturday, January 31, 11am-7pm
MASS MoCA, North Adams, MA
On a day when our galleries teem with
visitors and activities, take a peek behind the scenes in every
aspect of the museum. MASS MoCA Director Joseph Thompson
elaborates on the history of our campus. Art fabricators break
down the process of taking a project from concept to completion,
and you can watch our tech crew build a concert light show. Enjoy
elevator music (played live), art-making, and all the usual Free
What to Expect
Plan to spend the day!
Pop-up music performances
Grab lunch at Lickety Split
Art projects for the entire family
Tours run throughout the day
Dance performances in the galleries
Stay for DJ Bongohead at 7pm and
Nomadic Massive, the high energy, multilingual, sprawling
Montréal hip-hop collective in our Hunter Center at 8pm.
Download our "Where to Park" parking map here.
Sponsored by Berkshire Gas
Photo by Danielle Poulin
STUDIO (GRADES 10—12)
January 31 and February
14 from 10:00 a.m. to 3:30
Online registration for
both sessions begins at
noon on Wednesday, January
a Saturday at the Gallery
looking at works of art,
experimenting with studio
materials and techniques,
and meeting other teens
who are interested in art!
perspectives on American
paintings through drama
activities led by a
Led by artists and museum
educators, each five-hour
workshop includes an
interactive tour in the
instruction, and open
studio time to experiment
with materials and
techniques. Lunch and all
materials are provided.
Image: Childe Hassam,
Allies Day, May 1917
(detail), 1917, National
Gallery of Art,
Washington, Gift of
Ethelyn McKinney in memory
of her brother, Glenn Ford
For more information call
(202) 842-6252, e-mail
National Gallery of Art
6th Street & Constitution Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20565 |
Hours: Mon-Sat 10am-5pm, Sun 11am-6pm
Admission is always free
Paintings by Mark Rothko are among those most frequently sought out
by visitors at MOCA in Los Angeles and are a cornerstone of the
museum’s collection. Go behind the scenes with conservator Tatyana
Thompson as she prepares MOCA’s collection of 13 Rothko paintings
for exhibition and preserves their greatness for future generations
in Mark Rothko—The Art of
Conservation on MOCAtv: http://bit.ly/MOCAtvRothkoConservation.
Samuel Dorsky Museum of Art, SUNY New Paltz, has purchased two
artworks for its permanent collection from the exhibition
World of Wonder Hudson Valley Artists 2014.
“Grove Trophy Border Plate” by Holly Hughes and “Strapat” by Stephen
Niccolls were included in the group exhibition of 16 artists.
to see the U.S. Postal Service’s “The Year in Stamps
& Stories.” Vote for your favorite 2014 stamps and revisit the most
popular stories. As of this printing, the most popular stamp was
“Vintage Circus Posters.”
Agreement Reached/Finalists Unveiled
Guggenheim Foundation has approved a 20-year extension of the
Guggenheim Museum Bilbao agreement. Since opening in 1997, the
Museum has welcomed close to 17 million visitors and presented
nearly 140 exhibitions. And the Foundation has also announced that
six concept designs have been selected as finalists from the 1,715
submissions to the architectural competition for a proposed museum
in Helsinki, Finland.
Visitors to The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s presentation of four
special exhibitions during the spring/summer 2014 season have
generated an estimated $753 million in spending in New York. From
May—August, 79% of the visitors traveled from outside the five
boroughs of NYC, while 53% of out-of-town visitors cited the Met as
a key motivating factor in visiting NYC.
2014 Sotheby’s saw a notably intensified focus on the emergence of
female power players in the art market with a surge in appreciation
for and reappraisal of works by female artists, including Georgia
O’Keeffe, Kay Sage, Vija Celmins and Julia Margaret Cameron, among
others. The Top Ten highest prices at auction in 2014 were for
works by Giacometti, Modigliani, Van Gogh, Monet, Turner, Bacon,
Rothko and O’Keeffe.
Whitney Museum of American Art’s new 220,000 sq. ft. building is
nearing completion and scheduled to open on May 1 in downtown
Manhattan. In a new partnership with TF Cornerstone and High Line
Art, they are mounting a succession of works by key American artists
on the façade of the TF Cornerstone’s building at 95 Horatio St.
The first installation, Katherine
and Elizabeth, 2014, is by artist Alex
its 2014 cycle, The Creative Capital | Warhol Foundation Arts
Writers Grant Program has awarded a total of $600,000 to 20
writers. Ranging from $6,000 to $50,000 in four categories, these
grants support projects addressing both general and specialized art
Color of the Year Designated—Pantone
has named Marsala, #18-1438, the Color of the Year. Think marsala
wine, with its red/brown roots.
of Disguise: The World of Camouflage,
Intrepid Museum, Pier 86, NYC, thru Feb. 24. This exhibit explores
the art and science of camouflage in the natural world as well as
its cultural adaptations. Using digital imagery, artifacts and
interactive elements, visitors will explore color, shade and shapes
and learn how they can fool the eye. Free with Museum admission.
The Safe Harbors of the Hudson Ann Street Gallery, Newburgh, NY,
thru Feb. 14. This exhibit explores how a group of 20 contemporary
artists reframe the dominant discourses in contemporary art and is
comprised of iconoclastic multimedia works that convey an aesthetic
of the unusual or aberrant, while defying traditional and
Museum of American Illustration at the Society of Illustrators, NYC,
Jan. 7—31. The exhibit features works by leading contemporary
illustrators worldwide, selected by a prestigious jury of
professionals. This first exhibit includes works in the categories
of Institutional, Advertising and Uncommissioned.
year The Thomas Cole National Historic Site, Catskill, NY, selects
three candidates to join the staff and participate in the research
and interpretation of the work, home and studio of Thomas Cole. The
Fellowship runs from June 3—Nov. 12 and includes housing and a
monthly stipend. Deadline: Feb.
18, but priority will be given to applications received before Jan.
Justice Regional Juried Exhibition,
SUNY Ulster, Muroff Kotler-Visual Arts Gallery, Stone Ridge, NY,
Mar. 13-Apr. 17. - Artists/designers are invited to consider the
different aspects of peace/justice and submit visual
interpretations. Open to artists 18 and older working within the
Mid-Hudson Valley region. Deadline:
NY, choose Jan. 20
or Feb. 10, 6-9 p.m. Learn the fundamentals of airbrush
technique in a concise 3-hour hands-on class, designed for the
novice who wishes to paint fine art, crafts, signs and myriad other
objects. Limited seating; equipment/materials are provided.
Annual Sculpture in the Park,
sponsored by the Loveland High Plains Arts Council, Benson Sculpture
Garden, Loveland, CO, Aug. 8-9—America’s largest outdoor sculpture
show and sale. Deadline: Jan. 31.
High School Photography Competition,
The Art Institute of Mill Street Loft, Poughkeepsie, NY, Mar.
16-Apr. 13 - Open to all high school students grades 9-12. Awards.
Deadline: Feb. 22.
National Endowment for the Arts 2015 Funding Guidelines
have been posted online for Art Works and Challenge America
Interaction of Color,
Arts Society of Kingston (NY)
have an opening reception on First Saturday, Jan 3, 5-8 p.m.
Members present works that explore color as symbol, emotion, object
or idea (thru Jan. 31). At this time they will also celebrate the
release of the 2015 Kingston Community Calendar, with images by
seven local photographers. ask.org.
Guggenheim Museum, NYC—The
Spring 2015 season has been announced for this performing-arts
series that has championed new works and offered audiences
unprecedented access to leading creators and performers. Visit
Community Free Day,
Dia:Beacon, Jan. 10—Admission
is free for residents of Columbia, Dutchess, Greene, Orange, Putnam,
Rockland, Sullivan, Ulster and Westchester Counties—with
government-issued ID. See schedule at
http://www.diaart.org/sites/main/beacon. Jan.-March Schedule:
Ice Skating Season,
NGA Sculpture Garden,
on the National Mall, D.C., continues through March 16, weather
permitting. Surround yourself with the grand architecture of
national museums and monuments enhanced by views of post-World War
II sculptures by internationally famous artists. For hours, fees
class info and more visit
Wet-in-Wet and Drybrush Watercolor Techniques
Wet, wonderful watercolor! The colors are
dramatic; the methods of creating a watercolor are many. All types of
paint applications can be used, but there are two that seem to be
associated with watercolor more than others. Wet-in-wet and drybrush
applications are very important as well as fundamental to many
watercolorists’ repertories of techniques.
Wet-in-wet is a true description of the
method and the technique of application. Wet paper is flooded with
rich, fluid color that can be either thick and creamy or very light and
barely tinted. The resulting tones, once dry, vary greatly; and because
of the lack of control or predictability and the diversity, wet-in-wet
is considered one of the most important watercolor techniques.
The amount of water that is soaked into or
floating on the surface of the watercolor paper greatly affects the
results. Well soaked paper that has been allowed to set for a while is
less watery and will result in a more defined, yet slightly softened
image. Very wet paper, flooded and soaked with water, will allow the
pigments to stream and flow.
Soaking a large sheet of watercolor paper
can present a challenge. One method is to soak the paper in a bathtub.
The depth, temperature and length of soak are easy to control as is the
quality of water. It should be stated that minerals in some water might
have long-term effects on the paper and paints used in watercolor.
Where minerals and cleanliness really come into play is when an artist
is in the field or painting in a new area where the quality of water is
unknown. If you plan to do plein air work in watercolor, presoak in the
water at your home. It is much cleaner than any you might have access
to out in a remote area. And your technique will be challenged if
things are greatly different from that to which you are accustomed. So
play it safe and soak ahead of time. Also carry ample working water so
you control that quality, too.
Transport your dampened paper by slightly
rolling it, wrapping it in a clean plastic trash bag and slipping it
into an oversized mailing tube. As soon as you reach your destination,
remove the paper so that it will relax prior to tacking or taping onto
your work board.
Another element in the mix is the texture
and thickness of the paper used. If very heavy, pre-soaked but somewhat
drier paper is used, the results will have more edge and less fluidity.
Overly damp papers, both thick and thin, will not retain detail. Thin
paper tends to buckle and allow the pigments to pool. Finding the right
paper for your style is part of the fun and experimentation of
watercolor. Changing paper weight will often alter your plan of
Brushes used can be almost any, but artists
seem to have special wash brushes that they prefer. This brush might
contain a thick tuft of hair, might hold lots of diluted pigment and be
able to cover lots of paper is just a few strokes. Marine boar bristle
brushes offer a good value and can hold lots of fluid. Hake brushes do
the same and can be used for other application methods as well.
Wet-in-wet methods lend themselves to
topical textural additions as they set up and begin to dry. For
instance, when dropped into fluid areas, rock salt will pull the pigment
into star or crystal figurations. Resists such as oil and sometimes
common rubbing alcohol can be dropped into pools of color to create
unique patterns and tones. None of these are possible with other
methods of paint application.
If you like to add linear details to your
work, working wet-in-wet will give you an opportunity to do so. When
the wet areas have begun to dry but still have moisture, you can use a
blunt instrument (pointed paint brush handle is ideal) to scribe lines
through the damp areas. These lines will take on a much darker tone
than the painted areas they lie in and will give you a chance to add an
infinite sketchy style to your works.
Drybrush is the closest thing to a
wet-in-wet opposite that is possible. Dry paper is contacted with
non-watery brushes full of rich pigment. The resulting painted lines
and shapes are rigid and well defined. There is no fluidity to the
images created with drybrush. It is a method of application that is
added over other methods for sharp detail and definition. Textures,
roughness and highlights are some of the ways drybrush is used to accent
a nearly finished work.
Drybrush is a great additive technique.
Whether you want to increase the depth of a shadow or use an opaque
white tone to add sharp highlight, drybrush is a good way to do it.
Remember, your brush will be charged with a paint that is far less fluid
than ordinary watercolor application, so the paint will sit upon the
surface rather than react as a wash. The amount of paint and the degree
of dryness will determine the crispness of the look you achieve.
By combining drybrush over completed
wet-in-wet areas you will see other ways in which they can help you
achieve dramatic results. Slightly damp areas respond differently than
those that are totally dry. Salted areas respond differently when
scribed than unsalted, smooth, wet areas. Dragging drybrush over
scribed areas is different from dragging it over dry smooth areas. New
discoveries are limited only by your time and energy.
With experimentation in wet-in-wet and
drybrush work, many new and exciting opportunities will arise. Both
methods have huge potential in watercolor work and will give you many
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Eclipse Airbrush, Iwata Airbrush, Medea Textile Colours, Medea Com-Art Colours,
Ampersand Art Supply, Artool, General Pencil Co., Silentaire Technology,
American Art Clay Co., Graphic Chemical & Ink, Grumbacher, Schmincke,
Chartpak, Higgins Ink
ART in Beacon NY
THE ARTIST’S MARKETPLACE
Robert Paschal, MFA
Basic Airbrush Workshop—Beacon,
NY FEB. 10 2015
6-9 p.m. Learn the fundamentals of airbrush technique in a concise 3-hour
hands-on class, designed for the novice who wishes to paint fine art,
crafts, signs, customized autos/bikes/snowboards and myriad other objects.
Seating is limited. All equipment/materials are provided. 845.831.1043;
Camp Cōkaboodie in the Adirondacks
Jerry Savarie Road (off Big Brook Road) Indian Lake, NY
are located on Lake Abanakee with beautiful views and sunsets!
Airbrush History Trivia
—Abner Peeler, of Webster City, IA, invented the
airbrush in 1878. Imagine, over 130 years ago! Abner, a
professional inventor who tinkered with things such as screw
machines, bicycles and typewriters, developed this painting
tool—originally called a “paint distributor”—specifically for
photographic retouching. The paint distributor, which was similar
to today’s oscillating internal-mix airbrush, had a wooden handle
with metal parts and sold for the incredible price of $10. The
first such airbrush was sold to S. M. Thomas, and we know that the
first painting completed with this paint distributor was a
self-portrait of Peeler himself done by his wife on an enlarged
—The painter Man Ray (1890-1977) is probably the
first fine artist to exhibit paintings done exclusively with the
airbrush. Ray, considered the only American Dadaist, learned to use
the airbrush while working in an ad agency in New York City between
1917 and 1919. His fine art airbrush renderings were shown in NYC
galleries and called “aerographs.?nbsp; Looking at them with today’s
standards of what we consider airbrush painting, these works of art
would be considered simplistic—but at that time, totally new. They
consisted of images developed by airbrushing around found objects,
such as paper cutouts, tools and paper clips that were used simply
as stencils. Man Ray worked flat on a table, allowing gravity to
hold the stencils in place, and sprayed around them with black ink.
He repeated these images in both opaque and transparent ink and the
end products lent themselves to the look of cubism.
It is said that Man Ray was primarily interested in
producing paintings with a smooth machine-like finish. And because
the ink was airbrushed onto the surface, there were no brush strokes
in the artwork, which imparted an industrial appearance. An
excellent collection of his works is held by and exhibited at The
Art Institute of Chicago; and even viewed today, their simplicity is
Pablo Ruiz Picasso 1881 - 1972
There is much that could be written about Pablo
Picasso, arguably the greatest artist of the 20th
century. The enormous volume of work he completed stands without
question as legend. His influence on several generations of artists
and his recognition as the founder of many art periods, most
famously that of cubism, attests to his immersion in creativity. For
80 years of the 91 he lived, he devoted himself to an artistic
production that contributed to development of modern art of the 20th
century. And, all the while, Picasso was a man who loved women.
During his life he had affairs, lived with or married over six women
and fathered four children. He abhorred being alone when he was not
Aside from the tumultuous personal life, Picasso was
devoted to his art. During his early years he abandoned most of the
classical training given him by his father and first instructor for
his own interpretation of the world around him. Five “periods?are
recognized as brought to life by Picasso.
Most have heard of his Blue Period that lasted from
1901 to 1904 in which somber, blue tinted paintings prevailed. These
were influenced by the loss of a friend. Images of this period
include depictions of acrobats, prostitutes, beggars and artists.
His Rose Period (1905 to 1907) brought out paintings
with overall tones of orange and pink, many involving images of
harlequins. During this period he was seriously romantically
involved and the warmth of the relationship is seen in his palette
Soon after the Rose Period came an African Period
(1907 to 1909) that was influenced by artifacts from his personal
collection. Many paintings of this period repeat the use of two
Cubism, the style for which Picasso is most famous,
came into being when he and his friend and painter Braque challenged
each other to dissect and “analyze?objects, then paint them in
terms of their shapes. Color played a large part in this period of
work ?monochromatic browns and shadow tones prevailed as a common
thread. Each artist developed the style in his own way and each had
His Cubist Period ran from 1909 to 1919, and
included the use of collage as a fine art form. Heretofore, no
artist had used collage and cut paper to convey images. Imagine art
Picasso had many artist friends and some rivals.
Matisse was one of the “gentle?rivalries experienced in Picasso’s
lifetime. Both were strong, talented and seemed to challenge one
another. A recent collection of works by both artists reveals they
had a lot in common, although their styles were personal and not
derivative. The bold, outlined and highly decorative nature of both
artists' works is without question.
Historically, a lot happened during the 90+ years
Picasso lived, but he remained detached from any personal
commitment. He was a proclaimed pacifist, refusing to fight for any
side in the Spanish American War, World War I or World War II. If
was thought by many of his contemporaries that his dislike of war
and his unwillingness to fight was less political and more
cowardice. Being Spanish but living in France during these
conflicts, he escaped involvement and thus proclaimed and solidified
his pacifistic standing. He did, however, remain a member of the
Communist Party until his death.
At the time of his death, Picasso had enjoyed wide
acceptance as the greatest artist of his time. Many of his works
were recognized within his lifetime. Some include The Old
Guitarist from Picasso’s Blue Period, on display at the Museum
of Modern Art; Las Meninas Series, on display at the Picasso
Museum in Barcelona, Spain; and Guernica, in Madrid, Spain.
“My mother said to me, ‘If you are a soldier, you
will become a general. If you are a monk, you will become the Pope.?
Instead, I was a painter, and became Picasso.?- Pablo Ruiz
Picasso. Last words: “Drink to me.?/td>
Painting How To
Painting on a Grand Scale
When artists gravitate towards large scale works,
they face some interesting challenges along with the actual creative
process. How art is created ?on a grand scale ?is different from
small artworks. Every aspect of the act of mural painting and other
large scale artwork has considerations that make it fun and
stimulating - well worth those deliberations.
From the very ground onto which the artist places
sketch lines, brushes of paint and blended colors, large scale
nudges the artist into new realms of production. In order to paint
large scale, the preferred ground ?canvas of some sort ?must be
acquired in an appropriate size. The content of the canvas and its
weight are both vital considerations when the painted surface is
Widths/lengths and fiber content of canvas-type
grounds vary greatly, but there are sizes as large as 12 feet wide.
More commonly, large scale works are completed on canvas of 60? 72?
or 84?widths. Roll length purchases are necessary and can vary by
manufacturer ?from 6 feet to 25 yards.
But, after width and length, the fiber content may
be the single most important element of the painting. As you would
expect, there is cotton fiber in a variety of weights, but there is
also linen, jute, cotton/linen blends polyester (all synthetic) and
cotton/poly blends and all can be found primed and unprimed. The
weight and texture of the canvas will have an important bearing on
the finished artwork, and most artists match their style with the
texture and surface of their ground. Choices abound!
Rather than traditionally sized tubes of paint, most
muralists/large scale painters use jars, tubs ?even gallons of
artists?colors. Most manufacturers of paint offer a wide selection
in larger quantities. Selection of textures in those containers is
also sometimes available. Thicker paint means more pigment for
application and working into large spaces.
tools include brushes for sure, but those used are much larger in
size. Consider when doing any work—if the scale were huge, you would
want to use larger brushes. And, additionally, rollers (like those
used for wall painting) and trowels are also used in larger scale
works ?tools that would be difficult to use small scale become a
necessity for bigger works. Trowels, scrapers, and tools not often
associated with “painterly?applications are used by muralists and
accomplish the job they want. Painting pads and hand “mops?for
decorative surfacing of walls can come in very handy on larger scale
Easels play a big part in big works. Studio easels
in both wood and metal often accept works as large as 5-8 feet tall.
They help hold the work at the proper level ?that at which it will
be viewed ?so the artist is always aware of the scope, perspective
and dynamics of his/her work. Some artists who do large scale work
cover a wall with plywood and then staple or tack their canvas to
that surface at the proper level for work and viewing. Easels and
wall attachments ?whatever they might be ?help artists by allowing
them to step back and take in the “big picture.?For large stretched
canvas, wall mounted easels are great. They can accommodate works of
around 100 inches in height. They are sturdy, help hold the
stretched canvas firmly and adjust to all points up to around 100
And lastly some artists employ the use of airbrush
to do a lot of the design layout and fill-in on large works.
Texturing with an airbrush can be accomplished by painting through
screening, metal mesh, decorative pierced metal sheeting and many
more items. Airbrush gives the type of color gradation almost
impossible to achieve in any other way. Mists of tone-on-tone and
the softness achieved is a huge asset to some muralists.
In review, large scale artworks bring new thought
processes to ponder and hurdles to overcome. But, isn’t that what
contributes to making art so enjoyable and rewarding—to accept the
intellectual stimulation of such works and to succeed.
Printmaking Techniques & Materials
Printmaking is an enjoyable expression and is
accompanied by some terms that often seem a bit difficult to
understand. So, here some of the common terms and techniques will be
explained. The scope of printmaking is huge and can be enjoyed by
nearly any age group. Some of the materials used are found around
the home, while others must be purchased from art material
Graphic Chemical & Ink Co.
No matter the level of your involvement with
printmaking, it is sure to be exciting. In some techniques,
duplication of results is nearly impossible, which seems a bit
contradictory to the basic term: printmaking. Let’s take, for our
first example, the most direct and simple of prints…monoprints.
A monoprint (mono meaning one) is created by
applying ink or paint to a hard flat surface (plate), pressing paper
against the plate and lifting the paper from the plate. The
resulting print is one-of-a-kind, since ink or paint would be nearly
impossible to set in the same place time after time. Simple doesn’t
mean uninteresting, and this is a great technique for any artist.
Collagraph, a very simple form of
printmaking, is a print created from a plate (Masonite, mat board,
chip board, etc.) that has natural and/or found objects with texture
glued to it. The surface of the plate is sealed and, when dry, is
inked on the textured plate, excess removed and a paper placed on
top. Downward pressure (using a press or hand roller) presses the
paper and ink together and the images are transferred (in reverse)
to the paper. Again, the simplicity of collagraph prints makes them
easy for everyone to try. Many, but not unlimited, prints can be
made from a master collagraph plate.
Wood block (woodcut) printing advances in
difficulty because the artist uses special gouges and carving tools
to create a dimensional image in a wood block. The high surfaces of
the wood block are inked, paper is pressed against the inked areas
and the resulting image is a woodblock print. Surfaces other than
wood can be used; linoleum, wax, and rubber are a few that are a bit
easier to carve. Early wood block designs were used for fabric
embellishment and those blocks endure as collectables.
Reduction prints are created with care by
print artists who desire more color and texture in their work. Each
color is printed individually on the ever-decreasing wood block.
Working from back to front colorwise, the artist reduces the wood
block with every color, printing that part of the plate that will
reflect a specific color, and then removing more mass to print the
next color. When finished, the only areas that remain on the block
are those representing the very last color.
Drypoint etching is more involved because it
starts with a metal plate. The plate is scribed (scratched) by the
artist to record a subject. Ink is rubbed into the slight toothy
grooves created by the scribing. Paper is then put on the plate,
pressed and the resulting print is pulled away from the plate. For
all but the tiniest of printed images, a printing press is
invaluable in the process. Strong definition and evenness is
difficult with hand pressing methods. Many prints can be made from
the original plate. Etching can be taken yet another step by using
acid to enlarge and remove areas of the metal surface.
Intaglio prints are made from a metal base
into which designs have been created. This is often done with harsh
chemicals, the metal dissolving where there are scribed or etched
lines that have been made through a protective covering. Because of
the chemical contact (acids), this level of printmaking is
considered advanced and should be done under supervision and
instruction. Many prints can be made from the original plate. Ink is
rubbed into the low areas, paper is pressed to the surface and a
print is created.
following is a simple explanation of some terms associated with
brayer - a hard rubber roller on a handle
used to transfer ink to the plate.
plate ?a surface on which an image is
formed, usually metal.
baren - a circular padded tool used to rub
against the back of paper to obtain an image from a master.
hard ground -an acid-resistant material
applied to an etching plate through which you scribe to create a
mordant - an acid or other corrosive
substance used to “bite?into a metal plate to create an image on
gouge ?a V- or U-shaped tool for cutting a
wood or linoleum block.